Read Time:7 minsLanguages:url-selector#selectionChanged" data-controller="url-selector">EnglishEspañol한국어Tiếng ViệtIn this tutorial, we’ll learn how to create a pattern seen on many websites these days: a fixed header which animates to a less obtrusive state as we scroll down the page, We’ll start with the basic structure, then get things working using CSS and pure JavaScript" /> Read Time:7 minsLanguages:url-selector#selectionChanged" data-controller="url-selector">EnglishEspañol한국어Tiếng ViệtIn this tutorial, we’ll learn how to create a pattern seen on many websites these days: a fixed header which animates to a less obtrusive state as we scroll down the page, We’ll start with the basic structure, then get things working using CSS and pure JavaScript" />

Tạo menu cố định khi cuộn trang với javascript đơn giản

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Read Time:7 minsLanguages:url-selector#selectionChanged" data-controller="url-selector">EnglishEspañol한국어Tiếng Việt

In this tutorial, we’ll learn how khổng lồ create a pattern seen on many websites these days: a fixed header which animates lớn a less obtrusive sầu state as we scroll down the page. We’ll start with the basic structure, then get things working using CSS and pure JavaScript. Before closing, we’ll briefly cover how we can optimize our code as well as discussing challenges present when applying this kind of pattern to touch devices.

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To get an idea of what we’re going to build, here’s the thử nghiệm (you may prefer fullscreen view):

HTML Markup

We’ll start this exercise with the following markup–a header, containing a và a couple of other nested elements:

Logo ☰ The nav element, which is part of the header, contains three elements; the hình ảnh sản phẩm, the main thực đơn, và a placeholder button khổng lồ trigger a responsive sầu thực đơn (below 1061px). 

Note: If you cliông xã on this button, nothing much will happen. Creating the responsive sầu thực đơn is beyond the scope of this tutorial.

Initial CSS Styles

Now let’s have sầu a look at some CSS styles to lớn get things moving:

header position: fixed; top: 0; width: 100%; padding: 20px; box-sizing: border-box; background: #DD3543;nav display: flex; align-items: flex-end; justify-content: space-between; transition: align-items .2s;.logo font-size: 2rem; display: inline-block; padding: 20px 30px; background: #F35B66; color: #fff; margin: 50px 0 0 50px; transition: all .2s;ul display: flex; margin: 50px 50px 0 0; padding: 0; transition: margin .2s;li:not(:last-child) margin-right: 20px;li a display: block; padding: 10px 20px;.toggle-thực đơn display: none; font-size: 2rem; color: #fff; margin: 10px 10px 0 0; transition: margin .2s;main display: block; padding: 0 20px;Here’s a brief explanation of the most important rules here:

The header element is a fixed positioned element.We use flexbox to layout the nav element.The hình ảnh sản phẩm has margin-top: 50px và margin-left: 50px. Additionally, we give it padding: 20px 30px.The main menu mirrors the hình ảnh sản phẩm, with margin-top: 50px and margin-right: 50px.The responsive link button is hidden. It becomes visible when the viewport width is less than 1061px. Moreover, we phối its top & right margins to lớn 10px.We add the transition property to the elements whose property values will change in the future. In this way, we achieve sầu a smooth transition effect between the initial state and the final state. 

With these rules in place, the header looks lượt thích this:

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Animating the Header

So far we’ve built the basic structure of our header. It’s now time to lớn discuss the next steps:

The main element should be positioned right underneath the header. Rethành viên that the header has positioned: fixed, & it’s therefore positioned on top of the main element. The header should be animated as we scroll down the page.

To solve the first task, we add a padding-top property to lớn the main element. The value of this property should be equal to the header’s height. In our case, we haven’t specified a fixed height for our header, so we’ll use some JavaScript to calculate it, & then add the corresponding padding to the main element. 

To solve the second task, we’ll vì the following:

Retrieve sầu the number of pixels that the document has already been scrolled vertically.If this number is greater than 150px, we assign the scroll class to lớn the header.

JavaScript

Here’s the required JavaScript code–we begin by defining some variables, calculating the height of the header, then adding that value as padding-top lớn the main element:

var m = document.querySelector("main"), h = document.querySelector("header"), hHeight;function setTopPadding() hHeight = h.offsetHeight; m.style.paddingTop = hHeight + "px";For this demonstration, we use the offsetHeight property khổng lồ retrieve sầu the header’s height. Keep in mind that we could equally have used the getBoundingClientRect() method. It’s worth mentioning that this method may return fractional values.

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Now onto the scrolling event:

function onScroll() window.addEventListener("scroll", callbackFunc); function callbackFunc() var y = window.pageYOffset; if (y > 150) h.classList.add("scroll"); else h.classList.remove("scroll"); Here we take advantage of the window’s pageYOffset property to lớn calculate the number of pixels that our document has been scrolled vertically. Note that this property doesn’t work in older versions of IE (here.

Then we use the classList property lớn add và remove the scroll class from our header. Not all browsers support this property however, so if you want to tư vấn any of these you may want lớn look at the classList.js và classie.js polyfills. For this example, we could have used the className property khổng lồ manipulate our single class, but in a real-world scenario this might not the igiảm giá solution (in case we have multiple classes). 

To wrap things up, we call our functions in two different cases:

When the page loadsvà as we resize the browser window.

window.onload = function() setTopPadding(); onScroll();;window.onreform size = function() setTopPadding();;

CSS

As long as our scrolling exceeds the limit of 150px, a few additional CSS rules take place:

.scroll box-shadow: 0 7px 0 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, .1);.scroll .hình ảnh sản phẩm padding: 10px 20px; font-size: 1.5rem;.scroll nav align-items: center;.scroll .hình ảnh,.scroll ul,.scroll .toggle-thực đơn margin: 0;Specifically, we make the following changes:

Add a light gray box shadow khổng lồ the header.Reduce the logo’s padding and fonts form size.Change the alignment for the flex items across the cross-axis.Remove the margin from the logo, the thực đơn, & the responsive sầu link button.

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The aforementioned rules result in this new header layout:

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Going Responsive

As we’ve mentioned in a previous section, when the viewport width is less than 1061px, we hide the menu & show the responsive link button (which doesn’t actually vì anything). Plus, we make a few other changes in the target elements.